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Tuesday, November 29

Saturday, November 26

  1. page home edited ... {Mouse_injected_with_botulinum.jpg} Mouse injected with botulinum Thank you in advance for vi…
    ...
    {Mouse_injected_with_botulinum.jpg} Mouse injected with botulinum
    Thank you in advance for viewing my page and leaving your comments!!!
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ug0L6pVdvoA&feature=player_detailpage
    References
    http://www.cdc.gov/nczved/divisions/dfbmd/diseases/botulism/
    (view changes)
    5:38 pm

Friday, November 25

  1. 4:28 pm
  2. page home edited ... What is Botulism? Botulism is a rare but serious disease caused by a nerve toxin produced by …
    ...
    What is Botulism?
    Botulism is a rare but serious disease caused by a nerve toxin produced by the Clostridium Botulinum bacteria. It is an endospore forming, rod shaped, gram positive bacteria that is typically found in soil, water sediment and fish. It grows in low oxygen enviornments.There are seven different kinds of botulism (named type A-G). But only types A, B, E and F cause illness in humans. Infant botulism is the most common and is caused by a child eating food infected with botulinum spores (most often honey.) The spores then grow in the intestines and release toxins. Food borne botulism is caused by eating food contaminated with the botulinum toxin (typically home canned foods.) Wound botulism is when a wound is infected with the boulinum bacteria. Adult intestinal toxemia botulism is extremely rare but occurs the same way as infant botulism. All forms of botulism effect the nervous system, cause paralysis and can be fatal.
    ...
    Info. & MorphologyCausativeMorphology
    Causative
    Agent: Botulinum
    {http://www.sciencephoto.com/image/11863/large/B2201300-Botulism_bacteria-SPL.jpg} Gram positive stain of Clostridium botulinum
    Did you know?
    Botulinum is the main paralytic bacterium used to produce Botox and is used for cosmetic as well as therapeutic use. In clinical treatments, it is used to relieve chronic headaches as well as relieving muscles contractions in patients with medical conditions such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and cerebral palsy. (However, when botulinum is used to produce Botox it is purified and the neurotoxin is diluted.)
    {botox.jpg} Think twice about botox injections
    ...
    Bacterium is FoundEpidemiology:Found
    Epidemiology:

    C. botulinum is found worldwide, however it is most prevalent in developing countries.
    Alaskan natives have highest rate of illness (mostly type E) due to cultural food preparations, avoiding thoroughly heating fish.
    ...
    Lab techs whom handle botulinum w/out proper safety measures.
    {canned_vegetables.jpg} Home prepared vegetables.
    Bacterium MotilityReservoir:Motility
    Reservoir:
    Spores in
    Mode of Transportation: Botulism is not transmitted from one person to an other. The reproduction of endospores requires non-halophilic (non-salty) conditions and anaerobic (no oxygen) type environments.
    Foodborne botulism: Person eats contaminated food. C. botulinum spores grow into bacteria due to inaccurate heating conditions and turn toxic.
    ...
    Wound- affected tissue is removed.
    {Mouse_injected_with_botulinum.jpg} Mouse injected with botulinum
    ...
    page and
    leaving
    leaving your comments!!!
    References:

    References

    http://www.cdc.gov/nczved/divisions/dfbmd/diseases/botulism/
    http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs270/en/
    (view changes)
    4:27 pm
  3. page home edited ... What is Botulism? Botulism is a rare but serious disease caused by a nerve toxin produced by …
    ...
    What is Botulism?
    Botulism is a rare but serious disease caused by a nerve toxin produced by the Clostridium Botulinum bacteria. It is an endospore forming, rod shaped, gram positive bacteria that is typically found in soil, water sediment and fish. It grows in low oxygen enviornments.There are seven different kinds of botulism (named type A-G). But only types A, B, E and F cause illness in humans. Infant botulism is the most common and is caused by a child eating food infected with botulinum spores (most often honey.) The spores then grow in the intestines and release toxins. Food borne botulism is caused by eating food contaminated with the botulinum toxin (typically home canned foods.) Wound botulism is when a wound is infected with the boulinum bacteria. Adult intestinal toxemia botulism is extremely rare but occurs the same way as infant botulism. All forms of botulism effect the nervous system, cause paralysis and can be fatal.
    ...
    Info. & Morphology
    Causative
    MorphologyCausative Agent: Botulinum
    {http://www.sciencephoto.com/image/11863/large/B2201300-Botulism_bacteria-SPL.jpg} Gram positive stain of Clostridium botulinum
    Did you know?
    Botulinum is the main paralytic bacterium used to produce Botox and is used for cosmetic as well as therapeutic use. In clinical treatments, it is used to relieve chronic headaches as well as relieving muscles contractions in patients with medical conditions such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and cerebral palsy. (However, when botulinum is used to produce Botox it is purified and the neurotoxin is diluted.)
    {botox.jpg} Think twice about botox injections
    ...
    Bacterium is Found
    Epidemiology:
    FoundEpidemiology:
    C. botulinum is found worldwide, however it is most prevalent in developing countries.
    Alaskan natives have highest rate of illness (mostly type E) due to cultural food preparations, avoiding thoroughly heating fish.
    ...
    Lab techs whom handle botulinum w/out proper safety measures.
    {canned_vegetables.jpg} Home prepared vegetables.
    Bacterium Motility
    Reservoir:
    MotilityReservoir: Spores in
    Mode of Transportation: Botulism is not transmitted from one person to an other. The reproduction of endospores requires non-halophilic (non-salty) conditions and anaerobic (no oxygen) type environments.
    Foodborne botulism: Person eats contaminated food. C. botulinum spores grow into bacteria due to inaccurate heating conditions and turn toxic.
    ...
    Wound- affected tissue is removed.
    {Mouse_injected_with_botulinum.jpg} Mouse injected with botulinum
    ...
    page and leaving
    leaving
    your comments!!!
    References:
    http://www.cdc.gov/nczved/divisions/dfbmd/diseases/botulism/
    (view changes)
    4:12 pm
  4. page home edited Clostridium- Botulinum Bacteria Causing Botulism Disease ... What is Botulism? Botulism is …

    Clostridium- Botulinum Bacteria
    Causing Botulism Disease
    ...
    What is Botulism?
    Botulism is a rare but serious disease caused by a nerve toxin produced by the Clostridium Botulinum bacteria. It is an endospore forming, rod shaped, gram positive bacteria that is typically found in soil, water sediment and fish. It grows in low oxygen enviornments.There are seven different kinds of botulism (named type A-G). But only types A, B, E and F cause illness in humans. Infant botulism is the most common and is caused by a child eating food infected with botulinum spores (most often honey.) The spores then grow in the intestines and release toxins. Food borne botulism is caused by eating food contaminated with the botulinum toxin (typically home canned foods.) Wound botulism is when a wound is infected with the boulinum bacteria. Adult intestinal toxemia botulism is extremely rare but occurs the same way as infant botulism. All forms of botulism effect the nervous system, cause paralysis and can be fatal.
    Recap GeneralGeneral Info. & Morphology
    Causative Agent: Botulinum neurotoxin.Classification: Prokaryote bacteria (no nucleus/organelles), spore forming.Family: Clostridiaceae.Shape and arrangement: Single baccillus.Obligate anaerobic: Strictly grows in absence of oxygen, oxygen is toxic to cells. Ferments: Carbohydrates and nitrogenous compounds such as amino acids.
    {http://www.sciencephoto.com/image/11863/large/B2201300-Botulism_bacteria-SPL.jpg} Gram positive stain of Clostridium botulinum
    ...
    {http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8d/Botulinum_toxin_3BTA.png} Botulinum toxin
    Verification and Treatment
    Diagnosis: To
    Patient's history and physical examination is the first step. However, they are not typically enough to make a diagnosis.
    Tests may be done including a brain scan, spinal fluid examination, nerve conduction test, as well as others.
    Laboratory tests may need to be conducted to to
    determine if botulinal agenttoxin is present
    Inoculate mice with liquid portion of food extracts; if mice die within 72 hours, poison is present.
    To determine a specific type of botulism disease in patients-
    ...
    Wound- affected tissue is removed.
    {Mouse_injected_with_botulinum.jpg} Mouse injected with botulinum
    ...
    page and
    leaving
    leaving your comments!!!
    References:
    http://www.cdc.gov/nczved/divisions/dfbmd/diseases/botulism/
    (view changes)
    4:11 pm
  5. page home edited ... Recap General Info. & Morphology Causative Agent: Botulinum neurotoxin.Classification: P…
    ...
    Recap General Info. & Morphology
    Causative Agent: Botulinum neurotoxin.Classification: Prokaryote bacteria (no nucleus/organelles), spore forming.Family: Clostridiaceae.Shape and arrangement: Single baccillus.Obligate anaerobic: Strictly grows in absence of oxygen, oxygen is toxic to cells. Ferments: Carbohydrates and nitrogenous compounds such as amino acids.
    ...
    of Clostridium botulinum=
    =
    botulinum
    Did you know?
    Botulinum is the main paralytic bacterium used to produce Botox and is used for cosmetic as well as therapeutic use. In clinical treatments, it is used to relieve chronic headaches as well as relieving muscles contractions in patients with medical conditions such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and cerebral palsy. (However, when botulinum is used to produce Botox it is purified and the neurotoxin is diluted.)
    {botox.jpg} Think twice about botox injections
    Where this Bacterium is it found?Epidemiology:Found
    Epidemiology:

    C. botulinum is found worldwide, however it is most prevalent in developing countries.
    Alaskan natives have highest rate of illness (mostly type E) due to cultural food preparations, avoiding thoroughly heating fish.
    ...
    Lab techs whom handle botulinum w/out proper safety measures.
    {canned_vegetables.jpg} Home prepared vegetables.
    How is it motile?Reservoir:Bacterium Motility
    Reservoir:
    Spores in
    Mode of Transportation: Botulism is not transmitted from one person to an other. The reproduction of endospores requires non-halophilic (non-salty) conditions and anaerobic (no oxygen) type environments.
    Foodborne botulism: Person eats contaminated food. C. botulinum spores grow into bacteria due to inaccurate heating conditions and turn toxic.
    ...
    C. botulinum cannot grow in high acidic conditions, high levels of oxygen, low levels of moisture or storage at temperatures below 38°F, nor in high ratios of dissolved sugar.
    {http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8d/Botulinum_toxin_3BTA.png} Botulinum toxin
    How do we verifyVerification and treat this disease?Treatment
    Diagnosis: To determine if botulinal agent is present in food-
    Inoculate mice with liquid portion of food extracts; if mice die within 72 hours, poison is present.
    ...
    Thank you in advance for viewing my page and
    leaving your comments!!!
    =
    =

    References:
    http://www.cdc.gov/nczved/divisions/dfbmd/diseases/botulism/
    (view changes)
    3:58 pm
  6. page home edited Clostridium- Botulinum Bacteria Causing Botulism Disease ... Recap General Info. & Morph…

    Clostridium- Botulinum Bacteria
    Causing Botulism Disease
    ...
    Recap General Info. & Morphology
    Causative Agent: Botulinum neurotoxin.Classification: Prokaryote bacteria (no nucleus/organelles), spore forming.Family: Clostridiaceae.Shape and arrangement: Single baccillus.Obligate anaerobic: Strictly grows in absence of oxygen, oxygen is toxic to cells. Ferments: Carbohydrates and nitrogenous compounds such as amino acids.
    ...
    of Clostridium botulinum=
    =
    Did you know?
    Botulinum is the main paralytic bacterium used to produce Botox and is used for cosmetic as well as therapeutic use. In clinical treatments, it is used to relieve chronic headaches as well as relieving muscles contractions in patients with medical conditions such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and cerebral palsy. (However, when
    botulinum is used to produce Botox it is purified and the neurotoxin is diluted.)
    {botox.jpg} Think twice about botox injections

    Where is it found?
    Epidemiology:
    found?Epidemiology:
    C. botulinum is found worldwide, however it is most prevalent in developing countries.
    Alaskan natives have highest rate of illness (mostly type E) due to cultural food preparations, avoiding thoroughly heating fish.
    ...
    Lab techs whom handle botulinum w/out proper safety measures.
    {canned_vegetables.jpg} Home prepared vegetables.
    ...
    is it motile?
    Reservoir:
    motile?Reservoir: Spores in
    Mode of Transportation: Botulism is not transmitted from one person to an other. The reproduction of endospores requires non-halophilic (non-salty) conditions and anaerobic (no oxygen) type environments.
    Foodborne botulism: Person eats contaminated food. C. botulinum spores grow into bacteria due to inaccurate heating conditions and turn toxic.
    Infant botulism: Infants ingest spores that then grow in their intestinal tract.
    Wound botulism: Wound gets contaminated with spores that germinate, grow deep within wound, and produce toxin that is absorbed into the bloodstream.
    Prevention:
    Avoid improperly stored home-cooked or commercial foods, particularly low-acidic foods.
    Do not consume improperly canned goods.
    ...
    IV fluids/nutrients dispensed.
    Treatments usually focus on targeting toxin, not organism.
    ...
    heptavalent antitoxin, is effective against
    ...
    types of botulism.botulism and must be administered as soon as possible after clinical diagnosis is made.
    Foodborne- elimination of toxin (inducing vomiting or use of enemas.)
    Wound- affected tissue is removed.
    {Mouse_injected_with_botulinum.jpg} Mouse injected with botulinum
    Thank you in advance for viewing my page and
    leaving your comments!!!
    =
    =

    References:
    http://www.cdc.gov/nczved/divisions/dfbmd/diseases/botulism/
    (view changes)
    3:53 pm
  7. file botox.jpg uploaded
    3:35 pm
  8. page home edited ... Mode of Transportation: Botulism is not transmitted from one person to an other. The reproduct…
    ...
    Mode of Transportation: Botulism is not transmitted from one person to an other. The reproduction of endospores requires non-halophilic (non-salty) conditions and anaerobic (no oxygen) type environments.
    Foodborne botulism: Person eats contaminated food. C. botulinum spores grow into bacteria due to inaccurate heating conditions and turn toxic.
    ...
    their intestinal tract.Woundtract.
    Wound
    botulism: Wound
    Prevention:
    Avoid improperly stored home-cooked or commercial foods, particularly low-acidic foods.
    Do not consume improperly canned goods.
    Toxin is often killed at high temperatures so if one chooses to eat home canned food, boil food for 10 minutes to ensure safety.
    Foods that cannot be heated to temperatures high enough to kill the endospores should maintain a pH below 4.6, as to not harbor the bacteria.
    Do not feed honey to infants less than 1 yr. of age.
    ...
    dissolved sugar.
    {http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8d/Botulinum_toxin_3BTA.png} Botulinum toxin
    How do we verify and treat this disease?
    ...
    General weakness, fatigue but no fever nor loss of consciousness
    Treatments:
    ...
    to regenerate.
    Extended respiratory assistance, use of ventilator, often required.
    IV fluids/nutrients dispensed.
    ...
    not organism.
    Antitoxins, including heptavalent antitoxin, effective against neutralizing all 7 types of botulism.
    ...
    of enemas.)
    Wound- affected tissue is removed.
    {Mouse_injected_with_botulinum.jpg} Mouse injected with botulinum
    (view changes)
    3:29 pm

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